What is a biopsy?
Sample of tissue taken from the site of abnormality or suspicion for further investigation or microscopic examination. The intra oral biopsy is done for the purpose of proper diagnosis.
- Uncertain diagnosis with clinical examination.
- Pre-malignant conditions.
- Long-standing tumors.
- Painless hard swellings.
- Tumors that gradually increase in size.
- Cancerous conditions.
Several types of biopsy are done. Among them, incisional and excisional biopsies are quite commonly used in intraoral procedures.
Incisional intra oral biopsy:
Only a small amount or part of the tissue is removed from the whole mass of suspected tissue for examination. Tissue removed acts as a representative for the whole lesion.
Indications for Incisional biopsy:
The lesion is large such that complete removal is quite difficult. As its complete removal may require hospitalization. The lesion is extensive and present in multiple areas. Possible mutilation with complete removal.
Performed under local anesthesia. The tissue is biopsied from the edge of the lesion to include 1mm of the surrounding normal tissue. Suturing is optional.
Excisional intra oral biopsy:
when the entire mass of suspected tissue is removed surgically for examination.
Indications for Excisional biopsy:
The lesion should be small, benign, less chance of mutilation when completely removed.
Under local anesthesia, the lesion is completely removed along with 2 – 3mm of surrounding normal healthy tissue. In the case of malignant lesions, around 5 or more mm of surrounding normal healthy tissue can be included. Suturing is done at the surgical site. Biopsied tissue is transferred to the pathologist in 10% formalin for further investigation.
Advantages of a right timed biopsy:
A biopsy is safe and usually a daycare procedure. Early diagnosis of malignant lesions helps in the proper intervention of the disease thereby increasing the survival rate of the individual.